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March 7, 2021

Dysgraphia is a learning difference in the area of writing with measurable differences in several of the following aspects of writing: spelling, mechanics of writing (punctuation, capitalization, letter/word spacing, letter/number reversals), and composition. Of note, fine motor dexterity outside of the formation of letters and numbers should be ruled out as a primary motor etiology. These findings often reflect the same underlying anomalous neurodevelopment as dyslexia, in areas facilitating grapheme recognition, grapheme-phoneme translation, and orthographic recognition and reproduction. 

These are 3 of the most common reasons for dysgraphia. 

  1. Spelling/orthography/phonological processing

    1. Potential underlying phonological processing deficit

    2. Often associated with reading concerns/possible dyslexia

  2. Composition/organization

    1. Executive functioning

    2. Putting thoughts together

    3. Attention/ADHD

  3. Spatial/visuomotor

    1. When this is the primary factor, sometimes there are co-occurring math concerns

    2. Executive functioning deficits

    3. Sometimes a combination consistent with the syndrome of nonverbal learning disability (NVLD)